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Screening for Heart Disease

Some biomarkers may add to conventional cardiovascular risk factors in predicting the risk of future cardiovascular disease, including:  

  • Coronary artery calcification
  • Carotid intima-media thickness
  • Carotid total plaque area
  • Higher fibrinogen and PAI-1 blood concentrations
  • Elevated homocysteine
  • Elevated blood levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine
  • Inflammation as measured by C-reactive protein
  • Elevated Low-density lipoprotein-p
  • Elevated blood levels of brain natriuretic peptide (also known as B-type) (BNP)
  • Advanced Blood work ( advanced lipids, subclass analysis, inflammatory markers, and cutting edge genetic markers)
  • Aneurysm Screening
  •  Ankle Brachial Index 
  •  Vo 2 Max Testing

However, the clinical value of some biomarkers is still questionable.